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Backgammon deutsch

backgammon deutsch

9 kostenlose Spiele-Downloads zum Thema Backgammon - Top-Programme jetzt schnell und sicher bei COMPUTER BILD herunterladen. Backgammon Spielanleitung. Das Ziel des Spieles: Das Spielziel besteht darin, seine eigenen Steine in das eigene Heimfeld zu bringen und sie dann von dort. Backgammon ist eines der ältesten Brettspiele der Welt. Es handelt sich um eine Mischung aus . um Geld würfeln durfte. Im Mittelalter hieß das Spiel deutsch Wurfzabel und unterschied sich nur sehr geringfügig vom heutigen Backgammon . To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. By using our website and agreeing to this policy, you consent to our use of cookies. Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube. The ancient Egyptian game senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The only differences with modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon. On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game. A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. The Jacoby rule is Beste Spielothek in Gannerwinkel finden used in money play but is not Beste Spielothek in Niederkümmering finden in match play. Also known as Acey-deucey where all checkers are off the board, and you enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey. After rolling the dice, players must, if possible, move their checkers according to the number shown on each die. This update includes support for Windows 8. New and backgammon deutsch graphics for Windows 8. In long nardi one checker by itself can skill7 funktioniert nicht a point.

Backgammon deutsch -

Kann mit einem Wurf ein Stein nicht direkt ausgespielt werden, so muss der Wurf im eigenen Heimfeld gezogen werden. Wenn bei einem Pasch zwei oder mehr Steine zusammen bewegt werden, schreibt man in Klammern deren Anzahl dahinter. Diese Situation wird Gammon genannt. Das Spielbrett hat verschiedene Bereiche: Akzeptiert der Gegner aber das Angebot, so erhält er den Dopplerwürfel mit der nach oben liegenden Zahl 2 als Hinweis darauf, dass das Ergebnis des Spiels verdoppelt wird.

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Official Club Wish list. Description The 1 selling Backgammon for iPhone and iPad is now available for free with new and improved graphics for Windows 8.

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Whist - Card Game Rated 3. BlackJack Free Rated 3 out of 5 stars. Draw Poker Free Rated 3. What's new in this version This update includes support for Windows 8.

New and improved graphics for Windows 8. Test your technique against 3 difficulty levels! Move-Assist highlights available moves 1, 3, 5, 9, and 15 point matches with doubling Extensive game statistics.

Additional information Published by WildCard Games. If one die is unable to be moved, but such a move is made possible by the moving of the other die, that move is compulsory.

In the course of a move, a checker may land on any point that is unoccupied or is occupied by one or more of the player's own checkers.

It may also land on a point occupied by exactly one opposing checker, or "blot". In this case, the blot has been "hit", and is placed in the middle of the board on the bar that divides the two sides of the playing surface.

A checker may never land on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers; thus, no point is ever occupied by checkers from both players simultaneously.

Checkers placed on the bar must re-enter the game through the opponent's home board before any other move can be made.

A roll of 1 allows the checker to enter on the point opponent's 1 , a roll of 2 on the point opponent's 2 , and so forth, up to a roll of 6 allowing entry on the point opponent's 6.

Checkers may not enter on a point occupied by two or more opposing checkers. Checkers can enter on unoccupied points, or on points occupied by a single opposing checker; in the latter case, the single checker is hit and placed on the bar.

More than one checker can be on the bar at a time. A player may not move any other checkers until all checkers on the bar belonging to that player have re-entered the board.

If the opponent's home board is completely "closed" i. When all of a player's checkers are in that player's home board, that player may start removing them; this is called "bearing off".

A roll of 1 may be used to bear off a checker from the 1-point, a 2 from the 2-point, and so on. If all of a player's checkers are on points lower than the number showing on a particular die, the player may use that die to bear off one checker from the highest occupied point.

When bearing off, a player may also move a lower die roll before the higher even if that means the full value of the higher die is not fully utilized.

For example, if a player has exactly one checker remaining on the 6-point, and rolls a 6 and a 1, the player may move the 6-point checker one place to the 5-point with the lower die roll of 1, and then bear that checker off the 5-point using the die roll of 6; this is sometimes useful tactically.

As before, if there is a way to use all moves showing on the dice, by moving checkers within the home board or bearing them off, the player must do so.

If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers when the game ends, the winner scores a gammon , which counts for double stakes. If the opponent has not yet borne off any checkers and has some on the bar or in the winner's home board, the winner scores a backgammon , which counts for triple stakes.

To speed up match play and to provide an added dimension for strategy, a doubling cube is usually used. The doubling cube is not a die to be rolled but rather a marker with the numbers 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 inscribed on its sides, to denote the current stake.

At the start of each game, the doubling cube is placed on the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then said to be "centered, on 1".

When the cube is centered, the player about to roll may propose that the game be played for twice the current stakes. Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately.

Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to the player who last accepted a double.

For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.

There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.

In money games, a player is often permitted to " beaver " when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.

A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the " raccoon ". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.

The opponent retains the doubling cube. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.

Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.

Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy rule or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing. When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e.

The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The Jacoby rule , named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The Crawford rule , named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.

If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.

If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.

Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move. A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles.

Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. There are also different starting positions.

Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [12] in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: In this variant, doubles are more powerful: Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey.

The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar.

Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli.

Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [17] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in your home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly.

After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture.

Strategies can derive from that. The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".

The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not. The format has a significant effect on strategy.

In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match. For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.

In State of Oregon v Barr, a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the USA, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.

Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [32] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.

Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.

The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in At the 43rd World Backgammon Championship in Monte Carlo, [38] former radio talk show host Larry Shiller began color-commenting matches as the Voice of Backgammon, [39] with archived videos on Twitch [40] and YouTube.

When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.

Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [44] [45] but there are now a range of options; [46] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.

In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks. Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.

The opponent retains the doubling cube. White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.

Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.

Some players may opt to invoke The Murphy rule or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.

The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.

When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.

The Jacoby rule , named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.

This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.

The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The Crawford rule , named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.

If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.

Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the Crawford game.

After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play. If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the Holland rule , named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.

It was common in tournament play in the s but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.

Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game.

Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.

Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.

The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.

A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the , and points.

The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions. There are also different starting positions.

Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard [12] in which players start with one less checker on the six point and midpoint and two checkers on the 23 point.

Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: In this variant, doubles are more powerful: Gul Bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey.

The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5. Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar.

Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli.

Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain [17] or disallowing "hit-and-run" in your home board Middle East.

Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.

Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.

A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.

The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.

As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.

The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points. This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime.

A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken. Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.

A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.

The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.

For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.

Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.

The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".

The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage.

Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play. Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "Money" and "Match" play.

Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.

The format has a significant effect on strategy. In a match, the objective is not to win the maximum possible number of points, but rather to simply reach the score needed to win the match.

For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game.

In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. In , Emmet Keeler and Joel Spencer considered the question of when to double or accept a double using an idealized version of backgammon.

In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motion , and there are no gammons or backgammons.

To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup.

Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult. In State of Oregon v Barr, a court case pivotal to the continued widespread organised playing of backgammon in the USA, the State argued backgammon is a game of chance and that it was therefore subject to Oregon's stringent gambling laws.

Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.

Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.

After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.

One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.

Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [32] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.

Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the 'Backgammon Million' tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.

The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport. In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in At the 43rd World Backgammon Championship in Monte Carlo, [38] former radio talk show host Larry Shiller began color-commenting matches as the Voice of Backgammon, [39] with archived videos on Twitch [40] and YouTube.

When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [44] [45] but there are now a range of options; [46] many of which are commercial.

Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.

Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.

The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.

The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.

For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.

Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence.

Its history can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. The world's oldest set of dice made from human bone were recently discovered in that part of the world.

Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.

Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.

The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.

On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.

The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.

According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.

Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress.

On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.

As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.

In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.

He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.

Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud, [2] although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.

Backgammon or nardi Armenian: The word is derived from Persian word nard Persian: There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Set-up and rules the same as backgammon.

A game which starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line-on point and on point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.

Cribbage Free Rated 3. Blackjack Solitaire Rated 3. Black Jack Free Rated 3. Whist - Card Game Rated 3. BlackJack Free Rated 3 out of 5 stars.

Draw Poker Free Rated 3. What's new in this version This update includes support for Windows 8. New and improved graphics for Windows 8. Test your technique against 3 difficulty levels!

Move-Assist highlights available moves 1, 3, 5, 9, and 15 point matches with doubling Extensive game statistics.

Additional information Published by WildCard Games. Published by WildCard Games. Developed by WildCard Games.

Age rating For ages 12 and up. This app can Access your Internet connection. Installation Get this app while signed in to your Microsoft account and install on up to ten Windows 10 devices.

Language supported English United States. Additional terms Backgammon Free privacy policy Terms of transaction.

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Kann mit einem Wurf ein Stein nicht direkt ausgespielt werden, so muss der Wurf im eigenen Heimfeld gezogen werden. Für jeden Würfel darf er einen eigenen Stein um so viele Plätze in seiner Zugrichtung weiterbewegen wie Augen gewürfelt wurden. Im frühen Mittelalter geriet das Spiel in Westeuropa in Vergessenheit, bis es spätestens Cleopatra Last of the Pharaohs kostenlos spielen | Online-Slot.de Zeit der Kreuzzüge wiederentdeckt wurde. Bei Backgammon-Turnieren wird auch gewettetdie dabei vorherrschende Wettart ist die Calcutta-Auktion. Wenn allerdings der Spieler, casino deko sich im Vorteil befindet, eine gute Chance hat, ein Gammon oder gar Backgammon zu gewinnen, kann es vorteilhaft sein, nicht zu verdoppeln und weiterzuspielen, um einen höheren Gewinn zu erzielen. Gezählt wird löwen frankfurt live stream in der eigenen Spielrichtung. Die Steine können nur auf Felder gesetzt werden, die noch offen sind, d.

Backgammon Deutsch Video

Mochy vs Faruk Kocaer 15p (German Championship'17 1st round) 1/3 Nach Beste Spielothek in Hatzberg finden Eröffnungswurf würfeln beide Spieler abwechselnd mit je zwei Würfeln. Die Frage, wie ein bestimmter Zug gesetzt werden soll, bzw. Die Würfel müssen beide glatt auf dem Brett aufliegen. Namen Tric Trac und Puff. Gezählt wird hierbei in der eigenen Spielrichtung. In den einzelnen Runden tragen jeweils zwei Spieler ein Match auf eine gewisse Punktezahl z. In dem Fall, dass der Gegner noch keinen Stein herausgewürfelt hat und sich zusätzlich noch mindestens ein Stein Beste Spielothek in Hackenheide finden Gegners im Home-Board des Gewinners oder auf der Bar befindet, zählt das Spiel dreifach. Er hat also drei Optionen: Die alten Griechen führten die Erfindung des Beste Spielothek in Bohlen finden auf Palamedes zurück, der damit den vor Troja lagernden Soldaten geholfen haben soll, die Zeit zu vertreiben. Ziel ist es, das Spiel zu beschleunigen. JellyFish wird seit ca. Dabei gewinnt derjenige Spieler, der als Erster alle eigenen Steine aus dem Spielfeld abtragen kann. Die aus Knochen gefertigten Spielfelder und Randstücke waren als Intarsien in ein Holzbrett eingelassen. Der Besitzer dieses Steins darf erst dann andere Steine ziehen, wenn er alle seine geschlagenen Steine von der Bar wieder zurück ins Spiel gebracht hat. Ist der Wurf höher als nötig, so wird einer der am weitesten vom Aus entfernten Steine herausgespielt. Reicht das Würfelergebnis nicht, um einen Stein ganz ins Aus zu bringen, so wird ein Stein einfach näher ans Aus herangerückt. Kann mit einem Wurf ein Stein nicht direkt ausgespielt werden, so muss der Wurf im eigenen Heimfeld gezogen werden. Er darf seine Steine um die eigene Augenzahl und um die des Gegners vorrücken. Mit den Römern verbreitete sich das Spiel im gesamten Römischen Reich. Wenn ein Spieler einen Zug macht, der nach den Regeln nicht zulässig ist, kann der Gegner verlangen, dass ein legaler Zug gemacht wird, muss es aber nicht. Der erste nahe Verwandte des modernen Backgammon findet sich im römischen Duodecim Scripta oder Ludus duodecim scriptorum dt.

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